Hospital Procedures

Complex Coronary Interventions

Cardiac Catherization

Cardiac Catherizationis a test that shows if there are problems within your heart or if any of the arteries that supply your heart with blood are blocked.

In this test, a tube called a catheter is inserted into an artery and guided to the heart. A special dye (which is visible by Xray) is injected through the catheter. Cardiac Catherization can show how well the heart is pumping, if any of the coronary arteries are blocked, if the heart valves are working properly, if you were born with a heart defect, or if the heart has been damaged by disease


A stent (mesh device) may be used along with the balloon. The stent is placed in narrowed part of an artery to keep it open so more blood can get the heart. Sometimes a medicine-coated stent is used to prevent the formation of a blood clot in artery.

If non surgical procedure are not an option, by pass surgery may be necessary.

Structural Heart Disease

Structural heart disease most often refers to cardiac defects which are congenital in nature (birth defects), but may also include abnormalities of the valves and vessels of the heart wall that develop with wear and tear on the heart, or through other disease processes.

Endovascular Interventions of the Entire Aorta

Endovascular surgery is a form of minimally invasive surgery that was designed to access many regions of the body via major blood vessels. Endovascular techniques were originally designed for diagnostic purposes. Basic techniques involve the introduction of a catheter percutaneously or through the skin, into a large blood vessel. Typically the blood vessel chosen is the femoral artery or artery found near the groin. Access to the femoral artery for example, is required for peripheral, carotid, and aortic angiographic procedures. Alternative routes for entering the arterial circulation include the radial or brachial artery in the arm or the pedal artery in the foot. The catheter is injected with a radio-opaque dye that can be seen on live X-ray or fluoroscopy. As the dye courses through the blood vessels, characteristic images are seen by the endovascular surgeon and can assist in the diagnosis of diseases such as atherosclerosis, peripheral vascular disease, carotid artery disease, or aneurysms such as abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). This is a new technique developed to treat aortic aneurysms and dissections by use of stentgrafts which are inserted into the vasculature via the femoral arteries in the groin.

Complex Peripheral Arterial & Venous Interventions

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) is characterized by fatty build up that blocks normal blood flow in the arteries and has become an increasingly common diagnosis in the US. Symptoms of PAD include claudication, which is pain in the leg (typically calf or thigh) after walking. Some patients develop pain after just a few steps, while others can walk further distances before pain forces them to stop. Procedures to treat PAD may take place Above-the-Knee (ATK) or Below-the-Knee (BTK), and a more severe form of PAD is called Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI).

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a disorder that occurs in the arteries of the circulatory system caused by build up of plaque. In peripheral vascular disease the arteries become narrowed or blocked, blood cannot get through to nourish organs and other tissues, causing damage to the tissues and eventually tissue death. If left untreated, peripheral vascular disease can cause pain or aching in the legs, difficulty with walking, resting pain in the foot at night in bed, non-healing sores or infections in the toes or feet and can lead to an amputation in its most severe form. It is also a marker for serious conditions such as heart attack or stroke.

What are the risk factors for peripheral vascular disease?

Smoking: current smoking or even if you have quit many years ago
Diabetes: Type 1 or type 2
Age: Over the age of 50 your risk of PVD begins to rise; it occurs in 20% of those over 75
History of heart or vascular disease: in your past or in any of your family members
High blood pressure (hypertension): even though it may be treated currently with medication
High cholesterol: even though it may be treated currently with medication
Lack of exercise

Tran-Catheter Pulmonary Embolectomies

Embolectomy is the emergency surgical removal of emboli which are blocking blood circulation. It usually involves removal of thrombi (blood clots), and is then referred to as thrombectomy. Embolectomy is an emergency procedure often as the last resort because permanent occlusion of a significant blood flow to an organ leads to necrosis. Other involved therapeutic options are anticoagulation and thrombolysis.